man ls - ls(1) - list directory contents - manpage.io
ls(1) - list directory contents
GNU coreutils 8.32, February 2022
ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort is specified.
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
- -a, –all
do not ignore entries starting with .
- -A, –almost-all
do not list implied . and ..
with -l, print the author of each file
- -b, –escape
print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
with -l, scale sizes by SIZE when printing them; e.g., ‘–block-size=M’; see SIZE format below
- -B, –ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~
with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by name; otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
list entries by columns
colorize the output; WHEN can be ‘always’ (default if omitted), ‘auto’, or ’never’; more info below
- -d, –directory
list directories themselves, not their contents
- -D, –dired
generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode
do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls –color
- -F, –classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
likewise, except do not append ‘*’
across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
like -l –time-style=full-iso
like -l, but do not list owner
group directories before files;
- can be augmented with a –sort option, but any use of –sort=none (-U) disables grouping
- -G, –no-group
in a long listing, don’t print group names
- -h, –human-readable
with -l and -s, print sizes like 1K 234M 2G etc.
likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
- -H, –dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line
follow each command line symbolic link
- that points to a directory
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)
hyperlink file names; WHEN can be ‘always’ (default if omitted), ‘auto’, or ’never’
append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (–file-type), classify (-F)
- -i, –inode
print the index number of each file
- -I, –ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
- -k, –kibibytes
default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage; used only with -s and per directory totals
use a long listing format
- -L, –dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself
fill width with a comma separated list of entries
- -n, –numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
- -N, –literal
print entry names without quoting
like -l, but do not list group information
- -p, –indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories
- -q, –hide-control-chars
print ? instead of nongraphic characters
show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is ’ls’ and output is a terminal)
- -Q, –quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes
use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape (overrides QUOTING_STYLE environment variable)
- -r, –reverse
reverse order while sorting
- -R, –recursive
list subdirectories recursively
- -s, –size
print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
sort by file size, largest first
sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)
change the default of using modification times; access time (-u): atime, access, use; change time (-c): ctime, status; birth time: birth, creation;
- with -l, WORD determines which time to show; with –sort=time, sort by WORD (newest first)
time/date format with -l; see TIME_STYLE below
sort by time, newest first; see –time
- -T, –tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest first
do not sort; list entries in directory order
natural sort of (version) numbers within text
- -w, –width=COLS
set output width to COLS. 0 means no limit
list entries by lines instead of by columns
sort alphabetically by entry extension
- -Z, –context
print any security context of each file
list one file per line. Avoid ‘\en’ with -q or -b
display this help and exit
output version information and exit
The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,… (powers of 1000). Binary prefixes can be used, too: KiB=K, MiB=M, and so on.
The TIME_STYLE argument can be full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like in date(1). If FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files. TIME_STYLE prefixed with ‘posix-’ takes effect only outside the POSIX locale. Also the TIME_STYLE environment variable sets the default style to use.
Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with –color=never. With –color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.
if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).
Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.
GNU coreutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
Report any translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>
Copyright © 2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
Full documentation <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/ls>
or available locally via: info ‘(coreutils) ls invocation’